In this first episode of the Re-envision Maui series: Before and After Sugar, we take an in depth look at Maui’s past, from its mythic origins and indigenous ways of life, through colonization, and finally to its modern incarnation.

The island of Maui is at a crossroads. Industrial sugarcane production on Maui has come to an end after 150 years and the future of tens of thousands of acres of land and billions of gallons of the island’s fresh water is now in limbo. What will be grown and built during this transition will impact Maui’s future over the coming centuries. If we can better understand what Maui looked like before sugar became such a big force on the island, we may discover insights about what Maui could look like now that sugar is no longer. The possibilities are inspiring. The people of the Maui community are paying attention to what is being planned, what is being said, what is going unsaid, and what is being done on behalf of the future of this precious island. The Story Connective is producing a series of episodes that will take you on a journey introducing you to voices that envision a resilient and thriving Maui.

Writing, recording, and producing this episode was a lot of fun, and we learned a lot about how to combine Rhapsody's storytelling skills with Loxley's historical research skills. Consequently, it took us a bit longer than we had anticipated to create, but the result is -we believe- a great contribution to the historiography of Hawai'i. We even got the thumbs up from a Living Treasure of Hawai'i, Dr. Samuel M. ‘Ohukani‘ōhi‘a Gon, III, after he read the transcript of the episode and greenlighted the use of his chant.

Over the coming months, The Story Connective will bring you the voices of the affected stakeholders: the people, groups, organizations, and members at the grassroots of this historic moment on Maui. The voices of modern ahupua'a kalo & canoe crop farmers, native habitat restorers, community organizers, educators, storytellers, organic gardeners, water protectors, regenerative agriculturalists in the Korean Natural Farming & permaculture movements, and more. We hope to give voice to a vision of a possible thriving & regenerative Maui that is in alignment with the practiced Hawaiian values of aloha (love & respect), laulima (cooperation) and malama (stewardship), which result in a desirable pono (balance & alignment) of all life ... Stay tuned to the Story Connective.

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PRINT BIBLIOGRAPHY: Alexander, Arthur (1937). Koloa Plantation 1835 - 1935, Honolulu, HI. Alexander, William DeWitt (1895). A Brief Sketch Of The Life Of Kamehameha V. Third Annual Report of the Hawaiian Historical Society for the Year 1895. Honolulu: Hawaiian Historical Society. Beckwith, Martha Warren (1940). Hawaiian Mythology. New Haven, C.T.: Yale University Press. Deerr, Noel (1949). The History of Sugar, Volume 1, London: Chapman and Hall Ltd. Doak, Robin Santos (1 January 2003). Hawaii: The Aloha State. World Almanac Library. Dorrance, William H.; Morgan, Francis (2000). Sugar Islands: The 165-Year Story of Sugar in Hawaiʻi, Honolulu, HI: Mutual Publishing. Hawkins, Richard (2007). "James D. Dole and the 1932 Failure of the Hawaiian Pineapple Company". Hawaiian Journal of History. Kamakau, Samuel (1992) 1961. Ruling Chiefs of Hawaii (Revised ed.). Honolulu: Kamehameha Schools Press. Kent, Noel (1993). Hawaii: Islands Under the Influence, Honolulu, HI: University of Hawaii Press. Linnekin, Jocelyn (1990). Sacred Queens and Women of Consequence: Rank, Gender, and Colonialism in the Hawaiian Islands. University of Michigan Press. Lyman, Rufus A. (1895). Recollections of Kamehameha V. Third Annual Report of the Hawaiian Historical Society for the Year 1895. Honolulu: Hawaiian Historical Society. Maenette Kapeʻahiokalani Padeken Ah Nee-Benham; Ronald H. Heck (1998 ). Culture and educational policy in Hawai'i: the silencing of native voices. Psychology Press. Marilyn Stassen-Mclaughlin (1999). "Unlucky Star: Princess Ka'iulani". Hawaii Journal of History. Hawaiian Historical Society. Osorio, Jon Kamakawiwoʻole (2002). Dismembering Lāhui: A History of the Hawaiian Nation to 1887. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press. Pope, Charles Henry and Hooper, Thomas (1908 ). “Hooper Genealogy”, Charles Pope, Boston, MA. Ralph S. Kuykendall, (1938 ). The Hawaiian Kingdom: 1778-1854: foundation and transformation. Honolulu, University of Hawaii Press. Silva, Noenoe K. (17 August 2004). Aloha Betrayed: Native Hawaiian Resistance to American Colonialism. Duke University Press. Takaki, Ronald (1983), Pau Hana: Plantation Life and Labor in Hawaii, 1835 - 1920, Honolulu, HI: University of Hawaii Press. Takaki, Ronald (1994), Raising Cane: The World of Plantation Hawaii, New York, NY: Chelsea House Publishers. Urcia, Jose (1960), The Morphology of the Town as an Artifact: A Case Study of Sugar Plantation Towns on the Island of Oahu, Hawaii, Seattle, WA: University of Washington. Westervelt, W. D. (1910). Legends of Ma-ui—A demi god of Polynesia and of his mother Hina. Honolulu, Hawaii: The Hawaiian Gazette Co., Ltd.


ADDENDUM: Rhapsody and Loxley put a lot of effort into researching and writing this concise history of Hawai’i. We went to great lengths to gather accurate information from multiple sources: primary source documentation found in multiple university libraries, Hawaiian sources -including their rich oral traditions, historians’ and journalists’ works, Hawai’i independence sources, U.S. government sources, sugar company histories, et cetera. In order to get this history to fit within the focused scope of this project (namely Maui’s ahupua’a – sugarcane – regenerative future) as well as to fit within a single podcast episode, the Story Connective had to make many difficult editorial decisions. Extremely important historical events were regrettably omitted for the sake of scope and concision. There are many exceptional books, articles, documentaries, and websites that recount the comprehensive history of these islands. As the entire historiography is too great to list here, we encourage readers and listeners who wish to learn more to go to their nearest library -or use their preferred search engine- to investigate the following notable stories listed in chronological order:

The Naha Stone prophecy

1789: British American Captain Simon Metcalfe and the Olowalu Massacre

1820s – 1870s: Christian missionaries’ attitudes towards hula and first wave of repression of hula dancing, chanting, and singing

1824: Hawai’i Regent Kaʻahumanu and Christianity

1843: Paulet Affair: British naval officer Captain Lord George Paulet occupies the Hawaiian islands

1870s – 1880s: First Hawaiian Renaissance

1887: Constitution of the Kingdom of Hawaii (aka: the Bayonet Constitution)

1893: Blount Report & U.S. President Grover Cleveland’s response

1896: Republic of Hawai’i bans the Hawaiian language and the subsequent repression of Hawaiian culture

1897: Petition Against Annexation to the United States from the Hawaiian people (aka: The Kūʻē Petitions)

1898: Spanish-American War and its Pacific theater

1941 – 1990: U.S. military’s occupation and use of the Hawaiian island of Kahoʻolawe

1950s: Union organizing and the so-called “Hawai’i Democratic Revolution”

1970s – Present: Second Hawaiian Renaissance; particularly the trips of the Polynesian voyaging canoe, the Hōkūleʻa

1978: Addition to the 1950 The Constitution of the State of Hawaii - Article XI states, "The State shall conserve and protect agricultural lands, promote diversified agriculture, increase agricultural self-sufficiency and assure the availability of agriculturally suitable land."

2008: Hawai’i 2050 Sustainability Task Force Report on the self-sufficiency of the State

2014: Maui County GMO Moratorium Initiative -until an environmental and public health study on GMOs is conducted and finds the proposed cultivation practices to be safe and harmless- passed

2014 – 2015: Maui County GMO Moratorium struck down in U.S. federal courts


Story by Loxley Clovis & Rebecca Rhapsody

Audio recording & production by Loxley Clovis

Intro song is ‘Which That Is This’ by Doctor Turtle released under Creative Commons Attribution License

Ukulele of ‘Aloha ‘Oe’ performed by pomitsai released under Creative Commons Attribution License

Outro ukulele performed by Rebecca Rhapsody released under Creative Commons Attribution License

‘Ocean Waves and Wind’ by Binaural Soundscapes released under Creative Commons Attribution License

And birdsongs by Hawai’i Conservation Alliance released under Creative Commons Attribution License

Chant performed by Dr. Sam M. ‘Ohukani'ōhi'a Gon III, used with permission

Special Thanks to:

our Fiscal Sponsor, ELLSSA – a non profit committed to Empowering individuals to take care of the future.

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The purpose of this production is for non-profit education, news, & commentary.